Margaret Thatcher conducted only a secondary war (the Falklands), as Salisbury did (against the Boers), but she conducted it extremely well and to the ultimate benefit of the enemy, as Argentinian democracy, whatever its limitations, resulted from the British rout of the Ruritanian and brutal junta that lumbered out of the Buenos Aires Officers’ Club in their over-bemedalled tunics to oust the nightclub singer who was the widow and successor of Juan Peron in 1976. But as a reformer, who changed the country for the better, she easily surpassed any of the others, and she served longer than any consecutively, 11 years, since the First Reform Act in 1832 broadened the electorate and democratized the constituency system. In these 180 years, only Gladstone in four separate terms and a parliamentary career spanning 63 years, and Salisbury, scion of Britain’s most exalted family (the Cecils), and chosen heir of Disraeli, in three terms, served longer than Margaret Thatcher, the daughter of a provincial grocer.
When Margaret Thatcher was narrowly elected prime minister in 1979 over James Callaghan, the United Kingdom was on daily audit from the International Monetary Fund; currency controls prevented the removal of more than a few hundred pounds from the country, top corporate and personal income tax rates were 80 and 98%, and those who had the temerity and persistence to enjoy a capital gain (which was hard to come by in Britain in that economic climate) were apt to enjoy the exaltation of soul generated by an effective tax rate of more than 100%. The entire economy was in the hands of an intellectually corrupt, Luddite trade union confederation, which chose most of the delegates to any conference of the governing Labour Party, and whose shop stewards and craft unit heads could shut down an entire industry in mid-contract for any reason, from an individual work grievance to the sour grapes generated by a poor round of darts in his local pub (on working hours).
“Margaret Thatcher took a country that was on its knees and made Britain stand tall again. … She didn’t just lead our country, she saved our country.”
— David Cameron, Britain’s Prime Minister
“While many in positions of power are defined by the times in which they govern, Margaret Thatcher had that rarest of abilities to herself personify and define the age in which she served.”
— Stephen Harper, Canadian Prime Minister
“America has lost one of the staunchest allies we have ever known.”
— George H.W. Bush, former U.S. president
A “politician whose word had considerable weight.”
— Mikhail Gorbachev, the former president of the Soviet Union
“It’s a great day for all the miners.”
— David Hopper, the general secretary of the Durham Miners’ Association
“She was very considerate, and, surprisingly, touchy-feely. She would tap you on the arm and say, ’Everything OK?’ I hadn’t expected that touch of tenderness.”
— Salman Rushdie, whom Mrs. Thatcher granted protection when he went into hiding for The Satanic Verses.
“Margaret Thatcher was the most transformative leader of her country since Churchill.”
— Brian Mulroney, former prime minister
The Britain whose headship Margaret Thatcher had assumed (by the narrowest of margins) had not led a foreign military operation since the debacle at Suez in 1956, in which the British and French, by prearrangement and without consulting the United States, incited an Israeli invasion of the Sinai and then bunglingly invaded Egypt and masqueraded as peacekeepers separating the two combatants. Twenty-five years later the Argentinians invaded the Falklands and the British forcibly ejected them. Then, as always, Margaret Thatcher did not flinch. Nor did she when the Irish terrorists blew up her hotel at Brighton, killing several of her MPs, and she insisted that the conference open exactly on time the next morning and gave extemporaneously an unforgettable call to arms against the terrorists. Nor did she when as she cleaned up the state-owned industries and disemployed hundreds of thousands of under-worked beneficiaries of decades-old feather-bedding, and she was reviled in huge demonstrations. She did not waffle or waver over deployment of Intermediate nuclear missiles in Britain, Germany, Belgium and Italy to counter the Soviet ICBMs already in place in the satellite countries. When asked if she sought a “nuclear-free Europe,” she instantly replied that she favoured “a war-free Europe.”
When large chunks of her parliamentary party lost their nerve over her free market economics: a reduction of the top personal income tax rate to 40%, elimination of all currency controls and massive privatization of industry and right-to-work laws to remove the terror of the labour leadership, she famously told her party conference: “U-turn if you want; the lady’s not for turning.” She was a rock-solid supporter of the Western Alliance and was instrumental in the balanced elimination of intermediate-range missiles in Europe and the satisfactory end of the Cold War. She is generally credited with assisting President George Bush Sr. in determining that Saddam Hussein had to be evicted from Kuwait: “George, don’t wobble.” She made Britain the fourth economic power in the world, after the U.S., Japan and Germany, made her prosperous and a low tax country with declining public debt, improving public services, and steady trade surpluses. As she promised, she restored “Great” to Great Britain, it was, to scale, Elizabeth I’s Gloriana, without Shakespeare to publicize it, and with more than a trace of the Churchillian courage and virtue that first attracted her to a Conservative candidacy under Mr. Churchill’s leadership in 1950 and 1951.
She formed her judgment of Germany when the Luftwaffe, (in what must rank as one of the greatest long-term strategic blunders of the Second World War), bombed the town of Grantham where teenage Margaret Thatcher lived. And she formed her opinion of Americans from the U.S. servicemen, black and white, she and her family invited home for dinner after the war-time Sunday services in her local Methodist church. She was always grateful for America’s deliverance of the old world from the evils of Nazism and Communism, always supported the right of Israel to survive and flourish as a Jewish state, and never went cock-a-hoop for sanctions against what she called “the evil and repulsive” apartheid regime in South Africa, because she did not “see how we will make things better by making them worse.” She was a practical person of unswerving principle.
She often worried before speeches, feared greatly for British servicemen she sent into battle, in the Falklands and Iraq, and was never flippant or blasé about the human and historic consequences of important decisions she took. She was always strong, sometimes impatient, but never arrogant. While she was sometimes overbearing with colleagues and others who could stand up for themselves, she was always considerate of and exquisitely courteous to subordinates, and was beloved of the staff at Downing Street and Chequers.
Her successors have squandered most of the national economic strength and political capital she bequeathed to them. She was undercut and stabbed more in the back than the front by her own party, for advocating in respect of Europe precisely what the great majority of the British public now believes — that European co-operation is unambiguously good, but integration should be approached with caution by Britain, until it is not stripping institutions that have served it well for centuries in favour of well-intentioned but unfledged replacements.
Personally, it was a great honour that she (and Lord Carrington) sponsored me as a member of Their Lordships’ House, and that she and the magnificent Sir Denis Thatcher came to Barbara’s and my wedding party, and often to our home. When I was in London in the autumn, her advisers said that she was not reliably well enough to receive me, but they conveyed my best wishes at an appropriate moment and I cherish her warm and gracious reply. When she retired as prime minister the party chairman, Kenneth Baker, a loyal supporter, said “We shall not see her like again,” and she said “It’s a funny old world.” She was a saintly woman, and one of the great leaders who has arisen in a thousand years of British history.
Mr. Black graciously allowed CFN to reprint this piece that appeared originally in The National Post.
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